Recent publications:

  • Joseph E LeDoux, Stefan G Hofmann The subjective experience of emotion: a fearful view. Current Opinion in Behavioral Sciences, Volume 19, In progress (February 2018). <Full>
  • Pine DS, LeDoux JE. Elevating the Role of Subjective Experience in the Clinic: Response to Fanselow and Pennington. Am J Psychiatry. 2017 Nov 1;174(11):1121-1122. doi: 10.1176/ <Full>
  • Joseph LeDoux Semantics, Surplus Meaning, and the Science of Fear. Trends Cogn Sci. 2017 May;21(5):303-306. doi: 10.1016/j.tics.2017.<Full>
  • Joseph LeDoux and Richard Brownc A higher-order theory of emotional consciousness. PNAS Early Edition Feb 15, 2017. <Full>
  • J E LeDoux, J Moscarello, R Sears and V Campese. The birth, death and resurrection of avoidance: a reconceptualization of a troubled paradigm Molecular Psychiatry advance online publication 18 October 2016; doi: 10.1038/mp.2016.166 <Full>
  • Joseph E. LeDoux, Daniel S. Pine. Using Neuroscience to Help Understand Fear and Anxiety: A Two-System Framework Am J Psychiatry, September 09, 2016<Full>
  • 2015

  • Joseph LeDoux: Afterword: Emotional Construction in the Brain. In: The Psychological Construction of Emotion (Barrett, L. F. and Russell, J. A., eds), pp 459-463 New York: Guilford Press.
  • Joseph LeDoux: Feelings: What are they and how does the brain make them? Daedalus 144.
  • 2014

  • LeDoux J (2014) Emotion Appears To Be Generated in REM Sleep in the Absence of Sensory Input. How Does This Finding Fit with Your Stimulus-Response Model of Emotion? In: Dream Consciousness: Allan Hobson's New Approach to the Brain and Its Mind, vol. 3 (Tranquillo, N., ed), pp 157-158 Switzerland: Springer.
  • LeDoux J (2014) Low roads and higher order thoughts in emotion. Cortex 59:214-215.
  • LeDoux (2014) Coming to terms with fear. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 111:2871-2878. PMC3939902
  • Chaper & reviews from 2013


    Moscarello JM, LeDoux JE. Memory reconsolidation. Curr Biol. 2013 Sep 9;23(17):R746-50. doi: 10.1016/j.cub.2013.06.046.

    Alberini CM, Alberini CM, LeDoux JE (2013) Memory reconsolidation. Curr Biol 23:R746-750.

    LeDoux JE , 2013) The slippery slope of fear. Trends Cogn Sci 17:155-156.

    Chaper & reviews from 2012


    LeDoux J (2012) Afterword. The Psychoanalytic Review 99:595-606

    Johansen JP,Wolff SB, Luthi A, LeDoux JE (2012) Controlling the elements: an optogenetic approach to understanding the neural circuits of fear. Biol Psychiatry 71:1053-1060.

    LeDoux JE (2012) A neuroscientist's perspective on debates about the nature of emotion. Emotion Review 4:375-379.

    LeDoux JE (2012) Evolution of human emotion: A view through fear. Prog Brain Res 195:431-442.

    LeDoux J (2012) Rethinking the emotional brain. Neuron 73:653-676.


    Chaper & reviews from 2011


    Johansen JP, Cain CK, Ostroff LE, LeDoux JE (2011) Molecular mechanisms of fear learning and memory. Cell 147:509-524. PMC3215943

    LeDoux J(2011) The flip side: scientists who rock. Trends Cogn Sci 15:335-337.

    LeDoux J, Cowansage KK, Arnold EC, Banko JL, Moerke NJ, Rodriguez R, Schmidt EK, Klosi E, Chorev M, Lloyd RE, Pierre P, Wagner G, LeDoux JE, Klann E. Inhibition of the interactions between eukaryotic initiation factors 4E and 4G impairs long-term associative memory consolidation but not reconsolidation.Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2011 Feb 22;108(8):3383-8. Epub 2011 Feb 2.

    Chaper & reviews from 2010


    Cain CK, Choi JS, LeDoux JE Active Avoidance and Escape Learning In: Encyclopedia of Behavioral Neuroscience (Koob G, Thompson R, Le Moal M, eds), New York: Elsevier.

    Johnson LR, , LeDoux JE (2010) Microcircuits of the Amygdala. In: Handbook of Brain Microcircuits (Shepherd GM, Grillner S, eds), pp 137-147. New York: Oxford University Press.

    Monfils MH, Bush DEA, LeDoux JE (2010) Neural Substrates of Conditioned Fear and Anxiety. In: Encyclopedia of Behavioral Neuroscience (Koob GF, Le Moal M, Thompson RF, eds), pp 362-368. Oxford: Academic Press.

    LeDoux JE, Doyere V (2010) Emotional memory processing: Synaptic connectivity In The Memory Process: Neuroscientific and Humanistic Perspectives (Nalbantian S, Matthews P, McClelland JL, eds), 153-172. Cambridge: MIT Press.

    Cowansage KK, LeDoux JE, Monfils MH. Brain-Derived Neurotrophic Factor: A Dynamic Gatekeeper of Neural Plasticity.Curr Mol Pharmacol. 2010 Jan;3(1):12-29.

    Chaper & reviews from 2009


    LeDoux JE (2009) Emotion Systems and the Brain.In: Encyclopedia of Neuroscience (Squire LR, ed), pp 903-908. New York: Academic Press.

    LeDoux JE, Schiller D, Cain C (2009) Emotional Reaction and Action: From Threat Processing to Goal-Directed Behavior.In: The Cognitive Neurosciences, 4th Edition (Gazzaniga MS, ed), pp 905-924. Cambridge: MIT Press.

    LeDoux JE JE (2009) Emotion, scientific perspectives. In: The Oxford Companion to Consciousness (Bayne T, Cleeremans A, Wilken P, eds), pp 262-265. Oxford: Oxford University Press

    LeDoux JE (2009) Neural architecture of emotion. In: The Oxford Companion to Emotion and the Affective Sciences (Sander D, Scherer KR, eds), pp 276-279. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

    Debiec J, LeDoux JE (2009) The Amygdala and the Neural Pathways of Fear. In: Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder: Basic science and clinical practice (Shiromani PJ, Keane TM, LeDoux JE, eds), pp 23-38. New York: Humana Press.

    Rodrigues SM, Ledoux JE, Sapolsky RM.The influence of stress hormones on fear circuitry. Annu Rev Neurosci. 2009;32:289-313.

    LeDoux JE, Schiller D (2009) The Human Amygdala: Insights from Other Animals. In: The Human Amygdala (Whalen PJ, Phelps EA, eds), pp 43-60. New York: The Guilford Press.

    Bush DEA . Schafe GE, LeDoux JE (2009) Neural basis of fear conditioning. In: Handbook of Neuroscience for the Behavioral Sciences (Berntson GG, Cacioppo JT, eds), pp 762-780. New York: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

    Byrne JH, LaBar KS, LeDoux JE, Schafe GE, Sweatt JD, Thompson RF (2009) Learning & Memory: Basic mechanisms. In: From Molecules to Networks: An introduction to cellular and molecular neuroscience, 2nd Edition (Byrne JH, Roberts JL, eds), pp 539-608. Burlington: Academic Press.

    Chaper & reviews from 2008


    Cain C, LeDoux JE (2008) Emotional Processing and Motivation: In Search of Brain Mechanisms. In: Handbook of Approach and Avoidance Motivation (Elliot AJ, ed), 17-34. New York: Psychology Press, Taylor and Francis Group, LLC.

    Cain C, Debiec J, LeDoux JE (2008) Consolidation and reconsolidation of Pavlovian fear-conditioning: roles for intracellular signaling and extracellular modulation in memory storage. In: Beyond the Synapse: Cell-Cell Signaling in Synaptic Plasticity (Fields RD, ed), 72-88. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

    Joseph E. LeDoux JE (2008) Emotional Colouration of Consciousness: How Feelings Come About. In: Frontiers of Consciousness (Weiskrantz LW, Davies M, eds), pp 69-130. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

    Cain CK, , LeDoux JE (2008) Brain mechanisms of Pavlovian and instrumental aversive conditioning. In: Handbook of Anxiety and Fear (Blanchard RJ, Blanchard DC, Griebel G, Nutt D, eds), pp 103-124. Jordan Hill: Academic Press

    Meaney MJ, LeDoux JE, Liebowitz ML (2008) Neurobiology of Anxiety Disorders. In: Psychiatry, 3rd Edition (Tasman A, Kay J, Lieberman JA, First MB, Maj M, eds), pp 315-338. Chichester: John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

    Blair HT Nader K, Schafe GE, Bauer EP, Rodrigues SM, LeDoux JE (2008) The role of the lateral nucleus of the amygdala in auditory fear conditioning. In: Topics in Integrative Neuroscience: From cells to cognition (Pomerantz JR, ed), pp 299-325. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

    LeDoux JE, , Phelps EA (2008) Emotional Networks in the Brain. In: Handbook of Emotions, 3rd Edition (Lewis M, Haviland-Jones JM, Barrett LF, eds), pp 159-179. New York: Guilford Press.

    Schafe GE, LeDoux JE (2008) Neural and molecular mechanisms of fear memory. In: Learning & Memory: A comprehensive reference: Molecular mechanisms (Sweatt JD, ed): Academic Press.

    LeDoux, JE (2008) Amygdala. In: Scholarpedia

    Chaper & reviews from 2007


    Joseph E. LeDoux: Emotional Memory. Scholarpedia (2007), 2(7):180

    Schafe GE, LeDoux JE (2007) Neurochemistry/Neuropharmacology of fear & fear conditioning. In: Handbook of Neurochemistry and Molecular Neurobiology: Behavioral neurochemistry and neuroendocrinology, 3rd Edition (Blaustein JD, ed). New York: Springer Verlag.

    Yehuda R, LeDoux J. Response Variation following Trauma: A Translational Neuroscience Approach to Understanding PTSD. Neuron. 2007 Oct 4;56(1):19-32. Review. <Abstract> <Full>

    Monfils MH, Cowansage KK, LeDoux JE.Brain-derived neurotrophic factor: linking fear learning to memory consolidation.Mol Pharmacol. 2007 Aug;72(2):235-7. Epub 2007 May 23. <Abstract><Full>

    LeDoux J.The amygdala.Curr Biol. 2007 Oct 23;17(20):R868-74. Review. No abstract available.

    Sigurdsson T, Doyere V, Cain CK, Ledoux JE.Long-term potentiation in the amygdala: A cellular mechanism of fear learning and memory.Neuropharmacology. 2007 Jan;52(1):215-27. Epub 2006 Aug 21.

    Chaper & reviews from 2006


    Sotres-Bayon F, Cain CK, Ledoux JE. Brain Mechanisms of Fear Extinction: Historical Perspectives on the Contribution of Prefrontal Cortex.Biological Psychiatry, Volume 60, Issue 6, 15 September 2006, Page 666

    Chaper & reviews from 2005


    Fellous J-M, ,LeDoux JE (2005) Toward Basic Principles for Emotional Processing: What the fearful brain tells the robot. In: Who Needs Emotion? The brain meets the robot (Fellous J-M, Arbib MA, eds), pp 79-115. New York: Oxford

    Phelps EA, Ledoux JE.Contributions of the amygdala to emotion processing: from animal models to human behavior. Neuron. 2005 Oct 20;48(2):175-87.

    Chaper & reviews from 2004


    LeDoux JE(2004) The Self: Clues from the Brain. In The Self: From Soul to Brain. Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences, Vol. 1001, September 2003.

    Bush DEA, Schafe GE, LeDoux JE (2004) The neural basis of fear. In: The Cognitive Neurosciences, 3rd Edition (Gazzaniga MS, ed), pp 987-1003. Cambridge: MIT Press.

    Johnson LR,LeDoux JE (2004) The Anatomy of Fear: Microcircuits of the Lateral Amygdala. In: Fear and Anxiety: The Benefits of Translational Research (Gorman JM, ed). Arlington: American Psychiatric Publishing, Inc.

    Sullivan GM, LeDoux JE (2004) Synaptic Self: Conditioned Fear, Developmental
    Adversity, and the Anxious Individual.
    In: Fear and Anxiety: The Benefits of
    Translational Research (Gorman JM, ed). Arlington: American Psychiatric
    Publishing, Inc

    Sotres-Bayon F, Bush DE, LeDoux JE.
    Emotional perseveration: an update on prefrontal-amygdala interactions in fear extinction.Learn Mem. 2004 Sep-Oct;11(5):525-35.

    Rodrigues SM, Schafe GE, LeDoux JE. Molecular mechanisms underlying emotional learning and memory in the lateral amygdala. Neuron. 2004 Sep 30;44(1):75-91.

    Lamprecht R, LeDoux J.
    Structural plasticity and memory. Nat Rev Neurosci. 2004 Jan;5(1):45-54.<Full article>

    Pare D, Quirk GJ, Ledoux JE.
    New vistas on amygdala networks in conditioned fear.J Neurophysiol. 2004 Jul;92(1):1-9. Review.

    Chaper & reviews from 2003


    Schafe GE, LeDoux JE (2003) Neural substrates of emotional memory. In: Learning & Memory, 2nd Edition (Byrne JH, ed), pp 466-469. Farmington Hills: MacMillan.

    LeDoux JE (2003) The Emotional Brain, Fear, and the Amgydala. Cell Mol Neurobiol 23:727-738.

    LaBar KS
    , LeDoux JE (2003) Emotion and the brain: An overview. In: Behavioral Neurology and Neuropsychology, 2nd Edition (Feinberg TE, Farah MJ, eds). New York: Mc-Graw Hill.

    LeDoux JE. (2003) The Self: Clues from the brain. In: The Self: From Soul to Brain (LeDoux JE, Debiec J, Moss H, eds). Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences, Vol. 1001, September 2003.

    Debiec J
    , LeDoux JE (2003) Conclusions From Self-Knowledge to Science of the Self. In: The Self: From Soul to Brain (LeDoux JE, Debiec J, Moss H, eds). Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences, Vol. 1001, September 2003.

    Brown TH
    , Byrne JH, LaBar KS, LeDoux JE, Lindquist DH, Thompson RF, Tyler T (2003) Learning and Memory: Basic Mechanisms. In: From Molecules to Networks (Byrne JH, Roberts JL, eds), pp 499-574. New York: Elsevier Science (USA).

    Chaper & reviews 2002


    LaBar KS, LeDoux JE (2002) Emotional learning circuits in animals and humans. In: Handbook of Affective Sciences (Davidson RJ, Scherer K, Goldsmith HH, eds), pp 52-65. New York: Oxford University Press.

    LeDoux JE(2002) Mind, Brain and Self. In: The next fifty years: science in the first half of the twenty-first century (Brockman J, ed), pp 243-254. New York: Vintage Books.

    LeDoux JE(2002) Emotion, Memory, and the Brain. Sci Am 12:62-71.

    LeDoux JE (2002) The Self and the Brain. Prospect 77:50-53.

    Medina JF, Christopher Repa J, Mauk MD, LeDoux JE.
    Parallels between cerebellum- and amygdala-dependent conditioning. Nat Rev Neurosci. 2002 Feb;3(2):122-31. Review.

    Chaper & reviews from 2001


    LeDoux JE (2001) The neuroscience of fear. In: Emotions, Qualia, and Consciousness (Kaszniak A, ed). Singapore: World Scientific.

    Rogan MT, Weisskopf MG, Huang Y-Y, Kandel ER, LeDoux JE (2001) Long-Term Potentiation in the Amygdala: Implications for Memory. In: Neuronal Mechanisms of Memory Formation (Hölscher C, ed), pp 58-76. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

    LaBar K, LeDoux JE (2001) Coping with Danger: The neural basis of defensive behaviors and fearful feelings. In: Handbook of Physiology. Section 7: the Endocrine System. Vol. 6: Coping with Environment: Neural and Endocrine Mechanisms (McEwen BS, eds), pp 139-154. New York: Oxford University Press.

    LeDoux JE, Gorman JM.A call to action: overcoming anxiety through active coping.Am J Psychiatry. 2001 Dec;158(12):1953-5<Full article>

    Blair HT, Schafe GE, Bauer EP, Rodrigues SM, LeDoux JE (2001) Synaptic plasticity in the lateral amygdala: a cellular hypothesis of fear conditioning. Learn Mem 8:229-42.

    Schafe GE, Nader K, Blair HT, LeDoux JE. Memory consolidation of Pavlovian fear conditioning: a cellular and molecular perspective.Trends Neurosci. 2001 Sep;24(9):540-6.

    Chaper & reviews from 2000


    Yaniv, D., Schafe, G.E., LeDoux, J.E., and Richter-Levin, G. (2000). Perirhinal cortex and thalamic stimulation induces LTP in different areas of the amygdala. Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences, 911, 474-6.

    Sparks PD, LeDoux JE (2000) The Septal Complex as Seen Through the Context of Fear. In: The Behavioral Neuroscience of the Septal Region (Numan R, ed), pp 234-269. New York: Springer-Verlag.

    Nader, K., and LeDoux, J.E. (2000) How the brain produces fear: A Re-evaluation. In J. Bolhuis (Ed.), Brain mechanisms of perception, learning and memory. Oxford, UK: Oxford Univ. Press.

    LeDoux J (2000) Cognitive-Emotional Interactions: Listen to the Brain. In: Cognitive Neuroscience of Emotion (Lane R, Nadel L, eds), pp 129-155. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

    Phelps, E. A. and LeDoux, J. E. (2000) Emotional Networks in the Brain. In M. Lewis and J. M. Haviland-Jones (eds) Handbook of Emotions, 2nd Ed. Guilford Press, New York.

    Nader K, Schafe GE, LeDoux JE. The labile nature of consolidation theory.
    Nat Rev Neurosci. 2000 Dec;1(3):216-9. Review.

    LeDoux, J.E. (2000) Emotion circuits in the brain. Annu. Rev. Neurosci. 23:155-184. <Abstract><Full article>

    Rogan MT, Weisskopf MG, Huang YY, Kandel ER, and LeDoux JE (2000) Long-term potentiation in the amygdala: Implications for memory formation. In C. Holscher (ed) Neuronal Mechanisms of Memory Formation. Cambridge UK, Cambridge U. Press.

    Chaper & reviews from 1999


    Armony, J. L. and LeDoux, J. E. (1999) How danger is encoded: Towards a systems, cellular, and computational understanding of cognitive-emotional interactions in fear circuits. In M.S. Gazzaniga, The Cognitive Neurosciences. MIT Press, Cambridge.

    Fanselow, M. S. and LeDoux, J. E. (1999) Why we think plasticity underlying Pavlovian fear conditioning occurs in the basolateral amygdala. Neuron 23:229-232.<Abstract><Full article>

    LaBar, K., and LeDoux, J. E. (1999). Coping with Danger: The neural basis of defensive behaviors and fearful feelings. In Handbook of Physiology. Coping with Environment (Oxford University Press) Vol. Part 3. (in press)

    LeDoux JE (1999) Psychoanalytic Theory: Clues from the Brain. Neuro-Psychoanalysis. Conn., International Universities Press, 1(1):44-49.

    LeDoux JE . (1999) Can Neurobiology Tell Us Anything About Human Feelings? to appear in D. Kahneman, E. Diener, and N. Schwarz (eds) Foundations of Hedonic Psychology: Scientific Perspectives on Enjoyment and Suffering. New York, Russell Sage Foundation.

    LeDoux JE . (1999) Cognition and Emotion: Listen to the Brain. In R. Lane (ed) Emotion and Cognitive Neuroscience. Oxford U. Press, New York.

    LeDoux JE. (1999) Fear and the Brain: Where have we been and where are we going? Biological Psychiatry 44:1229-1238.<Full article>

    LeDoux JE. and Rogan, M. (1999) Emotion and the Animal Brain. In R.A. Wilson and F.C. Keil, The MIT Encyclopedia of the Cognitive Sciences. Cambridge, MIT Press, pp. 269-271.

    LeDoux JE. (1999) Emotional circuits in the brain. Encyclopedia of Neuroscience. 2nd ed. Elsevier. 644-646.

    Nader, K. and LeDoux, J. E. (1999) The Neural Circuits that Underlie Fear. In L. A. Schmidt and J. Schulkin (eds) Extreme Fear, Shyness, and Social Phobia. Oxford U. Press, New York

    Chaper & reviews from 1997


    Armony J.L., Servan-Schreiber D., Cohen J.D. and LeDoux J.E. (1997) Computational modeling of emotion: Explorations through the anatomy and physiology of fear conditioning. Trends in Cognitive Sciences, 1: 28-34.<Abstract>

    Armony J.L. and LeDoux J.E. (1997) How the brain processes emotional information. Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences 821:259-270.<Abstract>

    LeDoux, J.E. (1997) Emotion, Memory, and Pain. Pain Forum 6: 36-37.

    LeDoux, J.E. & Muller, J. (1997) Emotional memory and psychopathology. Philos Trans R Soc Lond B Biol Sci. 1997 Nov 29;352(1362):1719-26. Review.<Abstract> <Full Article>

    Nader, K., & LeDoux, J.E. (1997) Is it time to invoke multiple fear learning systems? Trends in Cognitive Sciences, 1, 241-244.

    Pitkanen, A., Savander, V. & LeDoux, J.L. (1997) Organization of intra-amygdaloid circuitries: an emerging framework for understanding functions of the amygdala. Trends in Neurosciences 20: 517-523.<Abstract><Full article>

    Chaper & reviews from 1996

    LaBar K, LeDoux JE (1996) Emotion and the Brain: An overview. In: Behavioral Neurology and Neuropsychology (Feinberg T, Farah M, eds). New York: Academic.

    LaBar K, LeDoux JE (1996) Brain Mechanisms of Emotion and Emotional Learning. In: Frontiers in Biology. Brain of Homo Sapiens (Bizzi E, Calissano P, Voltero V, eds).

    LeDoux JE (1996) The Emotional Brain: Clues from Fear Conditioning. In: Perception, Memory and Emotion: Frontiers in Neuroscience, pp 513-524. Elsevier Science.

    LeDoux JE (1996) Emotional circuits in the brain. In: Encyclopedia of Neuroscience (Adelman G, Smith B, eds). Amsterdam: Elsevier.

    LeDoux JE (1996) Emotional networks and motor control: A fearful view. In G. Holstege, R. Bandler, and C. Saper (eds) Progress in Brain Research (The Emotional Motor System). 107:437-436.

    LeDoux JE. Related Articles Emotional networks and motor control: a fearful view. Prog Brain Res. 1996;107:437-46. Review. No abstract available.

    Quirk, G.J., Armony, J.L., Repa, J.C., Li, X.-F. & LeDoux, J.E. (1996) Emotional memory: A search for sites of plasticity. Cold Spring Harbor Symposia on Biology 61: 247-257.

    Rogan, M.T. and LeDoux, J.E. (1996) Emotion: Systems, cells, synaptic plasticity. Cell, 85: 469-475<Abstract>

    Chaper & reviews from 1995


    LeDoux, J.E (1995) Setting “Stress” into Motion: Brain Mechanisms of Stimulus Evaluation. In: Neurobiological and Clinical Consequences of Stress: From Normal Adaptation to PTSD (Friedman M, Charney DS, Deutch AY, eds), pp 125-134. New York: Raven Press.

    LeDoux, J.E, Fellous JM (1995) Emotion and Computational Neuroscience. In: Handbook of Brain Theory and Neural Networks (Arbib M, ed). Cambridge: MIT Press.

    LeDoux, J.E. (1995). Emotion: clues from the brain. [Review]. Annual Review of Psychology, 46: 209-235.<Abstract>

    Chaper & reviews from 1994


    LeDoux, J.E. (1994). Emotion, memory and the brain. [Review].Scientific American, 270(6): 32-39.<Abstract>

    LeDoux, J.E (1994) The amygdala: contributions to fear and stress. Seminars in Neuroscience 6:231-237.

    LeDoux, J.E (1994) In Search of an Emotional System in the Brain: Leaping from Fear to Emotion and Consciousness. In: The Cognitive Neurosciences (Gazzaniga MS, ed). Cambridge: MIT Press.

    LeDoux, J.E (1994) Cognitive-emotional interactions in the brain; Emotion-specific physiological activity: Don't forget about CNS physiology; The degree of emotional control depends on the kind of neural System Involved; Memory vs. emotional memory in the brain; Emotional experience is an output of not a cause of emotion processing. In: The Nature of Emotion: Fundamental Questions (Ekman P, Davidson RJ, eds). New York: Oxford University Press.

    Chaper & reviews from 1993


    LeDoux J.E. (1993). Emotional memory systems in the brain. [Review]. Behavioural Brain Research, 58(1-2): 69-79.<Abstract>

    LeDoux J.E. (1993). Emotional memory: in search of systems and synapses. [Review]. Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences, 702: 149-157.<Abstract>

    Chaper & reviews from 1992


    LeDoux JE (1992) Emotional short-circuits in the brain. In: Neuroscience Year: Supplement 2 to the Encyclopedia of Neuroscience (Smith B, Adelman G, eds), pp 61-62. Birkhauser, Boston.

    LeDoux JE (1992) Emotion and the amygdala. In: The Amygdala (Aggleton J, ed), pp 339-351. New York: Academic Press.

    LeDoux JE. (1992). Brain mechanisms of emotion and emotional learning. [Review]. Current Opinion in Neurobiology, 2(2): 191-197.<Abstract>

    LeDoux JE (1992) Emotion as memory: Anatomical systems underlying indelible neural traces. In Handbook of Memory and Emotion (Christianson SA, ed), pp 269-288. Erlbaum.

    LeDoux JE (1992) Neural Substrates of Emotional memory. In: Encyclopedia of Learning and Memory (Squire LR, ed), pp 483-486. New York: Macmillan.

    LeDoux JE (1992) Emotion as memory: Anatomical systems underlying indelible neural traces. In Handbook of Memory and Emotion (Christianson SA, ed), pp 269-288. Erlbaum.

    LeDoux JE (1992) Systems and synapses of emotional memory. In: Memory: Organization and Locus of Change (Squire LR, Lynch G, Weinberger NM, McGaugh JL, eds). Oxford, New York.

    LeDoux JE (1992) Neural Substrates of Emotional memory. In: Encyclopedia of Learning and Memory (Squire LR, ed), pp 483-486. New York: Macmillan.

    LeDoux JE (1992) Systems and synapses of emotional memory. In: Memory: Organization and Locus of Change (Squire LR, Lynch G, Weinberger NM, McGaugh JL, eds). Oxford, New York.

    LeDoux JE (1992) Brain systems and emotional memory. In: International Review on Studies of Emotion (Strongman K, ed), pp 23-29. John Wiley.

    LeDoux JE (1992) Emotional networks in the brain. In: Handbook of Emotions (Lewis M, Haviland J, eds), pp. 109-118. New York: Guilford
    Romanski L.M. and LeDoux J.E. (1992). Equipotentiality of thalamo-amygdala and thalamo-cortico-amygdala circuits in auditory fear conditioning. Journal of Neuroscience, 12(11): 4501-4509.<Abstract>

    LeDoux JE (1992) Emotional Memories in the Brain. In: Neuropsychology of Memory, 2nd Edition (Squire L, Butters N, eds). New York: Guilford Press.

    Chaper & reviews from 1991


    LeDoux JE (1991) Emotion and the limbic system concept. Concepts Neurosci 2:169-199.

    LeDoux JE (1991) Emotion and the brain. J. NIH Res. 3:49-51

    Chaper & reviews from 1990


    LeDoux JE (1990) Fear Pathways in the Brain: Implications for Theories of the Emotional Brain. In Fear and Defense (Brain P, Parmigiani S, Maindardi D, Blanchard RJ, eds). London: Gordon and Breach.

    LeDoux JE (1990) Information flow from sensation to emotion: Plasticity in the neural computation of stimulus value. In: Learning and Computational Neuroscience (Gabriel M, Moore J, eds), pp 3-51. Bradford Books (MIT Press).

    Chaper & reviews from 1978-1989


    LeDoux J.E (1989) Mechanisms of Emotional Plasticity. In: Neural Control of Bodily Function: New Frontiers in Stress Research (Weiner H, ed).

    LeDoux J.E (1989) Cognitive-emotional interactions in the brain. Cognition and Emotion 3:267-289.


    Iwata J. and LeDoux J.E. (1988). Dissociation of associative and nonassociative concomitants of classical fear conditioning in the freely behaving rat. Behavioral Neuroscience, 102(1): 66-76.<Abstract>

    LeDoux J.E., Iwata J., Cicchetti P. and Reis D.J. (1988). Different projections of the central amygdaloid nucleus mediate autonomic and behavioral correlates of conditioned fear. Journal of Neuroscience, 8(7): 2517-2529.<Abstract>


    Reis DJ, LeDoux JE (1987) Some central neural mechanisms governing resting and behaviorally coupled control of blood pressure. Circulation 76 (suppl. 1),

    LeDoux J.E (1987) Emotion. In: Handbook of Physiology: Nervous System V, Higher Function, Plum, F. (volume editor), Mountcastle, V.B. (series editor), Washington, D.C.: American Physiological Society, pp. 419‑459.


    LeDoux J.E (1986) Neurobiology of Emotion. In: Mind and Brain: Dialogues in Cognitive Neuroscience (LeDoux JE, Hirst W, eds). New York: Cambridge University Press.

    LeDoux J.E (1986) Sensory Systems and Emotion: A Model of Affective Processing. Integrative Psychiatry, 4, 237‑238.


    LeDoux J.E (1985) Brain, mind, language. In: Brain and Mind (Oakley D, ed). London: Matheun.


    LeDoux J.E (1984) Cerebral asymmetry and the integrated function of the brain. In: Functions of the Right Hemisphere (Young A, ed), pp 203‑216. London: Academic.

    LeDoux J.E (1984) Cognitive Evolution: Clues from Brain Asymmetry. In: The Right Hemisphere (Ardilla A, Ostrovsky F, eds). New York: Gordon and Breach.

    LeDoux J.E (1984) Cognition and Emotion: Processing Functions and Brain Systems. In: Handbook of Cognitive Neuroscience (Gazzaniga MS, ed). New York: Plenum Press.


    LeDoux JE (1982) Neuroevolutionary mechanisms of cerebral asymmetry in man. Brain Behav Evol 20:196‑212.


    LeDoux J.E (1981) Neuroevolutionary mechanisms of language. Proceedings of First International Congress of Neuropsychology, The Neurological Institute of Colombia, Bogota.

    LeDoux J.E, Gazzaniga MS (1981) The brain and the split‑brain: a duel with duality as a model of mind.  Behav. Brain Sci. 4:109‑110.


    LeDoux J.E (1979) Parieto‑occipital symptomology: the split‑brain perspective. In: Handbook of Behavioral Neurobiology: Neuropsychology (Gazzaniga MS, ed). New York: Plenum Press.

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